Mysql学习笔记-安装

记录mysql读书日记

安装mysql

$ curl -LO http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-11.noarch.rpm 安装 mysql 源

$ sudo yum localinstall mysql57-community-release-el7-11.noarch.rpm 检查 yum 源是否安装成功


$ sudo yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"
mysql-connectors-community           MySQL Connectors Community              21
mysql-tools-community                MySQL Tools Community                   38
mysql57-community                    MySQL 5.7 Community Server             130

如上所示,找到了 mysql 的安装包

2.安装

$ sudo yum install mysql-community-server 3.启动

安装服务

$ sudo systemctl enable mysqld 启动服务

$ sudo systemctl start mysqld 查看服务状态

$ sudo systemctl status mysqld 4.修改 root 默认密码

MySQL 5.7 启动后,在 /var/log/mysqld.log 文件中给 root 生成了一个默认密码。通过下面的方式找到 root 默认密码,然后登录 mysql 进行修改:

$ grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
[Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: **********

登录 MySQL 并修改密码

$ mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
注意:MySQL 5.7 默认安装了密码安全检查插件(validate_password),默认密码检查策略要求密码必须包含:大小写字母、数字和特殊符号,并且长度不能少于 8 位。

通过 MySQL 环境变量可以查看密码策略的相关信息:


mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| Variable_name                        | Value  |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| validate_password_check_user_name    | OFF    |
| validate_password_dictionary_file    |        |
| validate_password_length             | 8      |
| validate_password_mixed_case_count   | 1      |
| validate_password_number_count       | 1      |
| validate_password_policy             | MEDIUM |
| validate_password_special_char_count | 1      |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)
具体修改,参见 http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/validate-password-options-variables.html#sysvar_validate_password_policy

指定密码校验策略

$ sudo vi /etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]
# 添加如下键值对, 0=LOW, 1=MEDIUM, 2=STRONG
validate_password_policy=0
禁用密码策略

$ sudo vi /etc/my.cnf
	
[mysqld]
# 禁用密码校验策略
validate_password = off
重启 MySQL 服务,使配置生效

$ sudo systemctl restart mysqld

5.添加远程登录用户

MySQL 默认只允许 root 帐户在本地登录,如果要在其它机器上连接 MySQL,必须修改 root 允许远程连接,或者添加一个允许远程连接的帐户,为了安全起见,本例添加一个新的帐户:

mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'secret' WITH GRANT OPTION;

6.配置默认编码为 utf8

MySQL 默认为 latin1, 一般修改为 UTF-8

$ vi /etc/my.cnf [mysqld]

在myslqd下添加如下键值对

character_set_server=utf8 init_connect=’SET NAMES utf8’ 重启 MySQL 服务,使配置生效

$ sudo systemctl restart mysqld 查看字符集

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘character%’; +————————–+—————————-+ | Variable_name | Value | +————————–+—————————-+ | character_set_client | utf8 | | character_set_connection | utf8 | | character_set_database | utf8 | | character_set_filesystem | binary | | character_set_results | utf8 | | character_set_server | utf8 | | character_set_system | utf8 | | character_sets_dir | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ | +————————–+—————————-+ 8 rows in set (0.00 sec 7.开启端口

$ sudo firewall-cmd –zone=public –add-port=3306/tcp –permanent $ sudo firewall-cmd –reload

简易方式快速启动: 宿主机 curl -LO http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-11.noarch.rpm yum install mysql-community-client -y

yum install docker docker-compose -y

mkdir -p /mysql mkdir -p /mysql/data mkdir -p /mysql/config

将my.conf复制到/mysql/config下 将docker-compose.yml拷贝到/mysql下

my.cnf配置如下(.cnf结尾)

# The MySQL database server configuration file.
#
# You can copy this to one of:
# - "/etc/mysql/my.cnf" to set global options,
# - "~/.my.cnf" to set user-specific options.
#
# One can use all long options that the program supports.
# Run program with --help to get a list of available options and with
# --print-defaults to see which it would actually understand and use.
#
# For explanations see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/server-system-variables.html

# This will be passed to all mysql clients
# It has been reported that passwords should be enclosed with ticks/quotes
# escpecially if they contain "#" chars...
# Remember to edit /etc/mysql/debian.cnf when changing the socket location.

# Here is entries for some specific programs
# The following values assume you have at least 32M ram

[mysqld_safe]
socket		= /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
nice		= 0

[mysqld]
#
# * Basic Settings
#
user		= mysql
pid-file	= /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
socket		= /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port		= 3306
basedir		= /usr
datadir		= /var/lib/mysql
tmpdir		= /tmp
lc-messages-dir	= /usr/share/mysql
skip-external-locking
skip-grant-tables
#
# Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on
# localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.
bind-address		= 0.0.0.0
#
# * Fine Tuning
#
key_buffer_size		= 16M
max_allowed_packet	= 16M
thread_stack		= 192K
thread_cache_size       = 8
# This replaces the startup script and checks MyISAM tables if needed
# the first time they are touched
myisam-recover-options  = BACKUP
#max_connections        = 100
#table_cache            = 64
#thread_concurrency     = 10
#
# * Query Cache Configuration
#
query_cache_limit	= 1M
query_cache_size        = 16M
#
# * Logging and Replication
#
# Both location gets rotated by the cronjob.
# Be aware that this log type is a performance killer.
# As of 5.1 you can enable the log at runtime!
#general_log_file        = /var/log/mysql/mysql.log
#general_log             = 1
#
# Error log - should be very few entries.
#
log_error = /var/log/mysql/error.log
#
# Here you can see queries with especially long duration
#log_slow_queries	= /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
#long_query_time = 2
#log-queries-not-using-indexes
#
# The following can be used as easy to replay backup logs or for replication.
# note: if you are setting up a replication slave, see README.Debian about
#       other settings you may need to change.
#server-id		= 1
#log_bin			= /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
expire_logs_days	= 10
max_binlog_size   = 100M
#binlog_do_db		= include_database_name
#binlog_ignore_db	= include_database_name
#
# * InnoDB
#
# InnoDB is enabled by default with a 10MB datafile in /var/lib/mysql/.
# Read the manual for more InnoDB related options. There are many!
#
# * Security Features
#
# Read the manual, too, if you want chroot!
# chroot = /var/lib/mysql/
#
# For generating SSL certificates I recommend the OpenSSL GUI "tinyca".
#
# ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/cacert.pem
# ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem
# ssl-key=/etc/mysql/server-key.pem

docker-compose文件

version: '3'
services:
  mysql:
    image: mysql:5.7
    container_name: mysql
    command: mysqld --character-set-server=utf8mb4 --collation-server=utf8mb4_unicode_ci #设置utf8字符集
    restart: always
    ports:
      - 6606:3306
    volumes:
      - "/mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql"
      - "/mysql/config:/etc/mysql/conf.d"
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: "123456"   #root管理员用户密码
      MYSQL_USER: test   #创建test用户
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: test  #设置test用户的密码

docker-compose up -d 启动
宿主机登录mysql: mysql -uroot -P6606 -p -h127.0.0.1

报错Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES) 配置文件添加:skip-grant-tables 进入数据量,更新密码update mysql.user set authentication_string=password(‘**’) where user=’**

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